Celiac artery

Celiac artery, also known as the celiac axis or celiac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut. It arises from the abdominal aorta and commonly gives rise to three branches: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery

Arises anteriorly from abdominal aorta at the T12 level, behind the median arcuate ligament, just as the aorta enters the abdomen. 

It is typically a short vessel that passes underneath the median arcuate ligament, often indented on its superior surface by this ligament, and then courses anteriorly or slightly anterolaterally in the lesser sac. It is surrounded by celiac lymph nodes and the celiac plexus. At the upper border of the pancreas, it divides into three branches: left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries. The left gastric artery is usually the first branch, after which the celiac artery bifurcates into the splenic artery (coursing to the left) and the common hepatic artery (coursing to the right).

  • common trunk with bifurcation into the heptaosplenic trunk and left gastric artery: 50-76%
  • common trunk with trifurcation into the common hepatic artery, splenic artery and left gastric artery: 10-19%
  • quadrifurcating or pentafurcating trunk with the gastroduodenal artery, right and left hepatic arteries and dorsal pancreatic artery potentially originating from the trunk: 10% 4

The celiac artery supplies the foregut, which is defined by the following structures6

Classic branching of the celiac artery into the left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery is seen in approximately 70%. Variations are present in approximately 30%. In general, any of the three celiac branches may arise independently from the aorta or SMA, or the celiac artery may give rise to other branches. A coeliacomesenteric trunk occurs when both the SMA and the celiac trunk originate as a single trunk from the aorta. 

  • left gastric artery: 2-3%
  • splenic artery: <1%
  • common hepatic artery: 2%
  • left gastric artery: extremely rare
  • splenic artery: <1%
  • common hepatic artery: 2%
  • common origin of the celiac artery and SMA (coeliacomesenteric trunk): <1%

There is also a plethora of variations in the branching of the second and third order branches of the celiac artery, particularly hepatic arterial anatomy which is discussed with the common hepatic artery.

Anatomy: Abdominopelvic
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Article information

rID: 5166
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Coeliac trunk
  • Celiac artery
  • Celiac trunk
  • Coeliac axis
  • Celiac axis

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: celiac artery
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  • Figure 2: celiac artery (Gray's illustration)
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  • Figure 3: CT angiogram
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  • Figure 4: branches of the abdominal aorta
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  • Case 1: coaeliaco-mesenteric trunk
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  • Case 2: variant anatomy
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  • Case 3: variant anatomy
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  • Case 4: common CA/SMA origin
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  • Incidental note: ...
    Case 5: direct aortic origin of branches
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