Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung
The incidence peaks around the 6th decade 6. There is an increased male predilection 7. They are rare and may accounts for ∼3% of all lung cancers, although the proportion of lung cancers diagnosed as LCNEC may be be increasing 12.
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung are poorly differentiated and high-grade neuroendocrine tumors 10.
They have neuroendocrine morphology, neuroendocrine differentiation on immunohistochemistry, often high mitotic rates (>10 mitoses/mm2) and non-small cell cytological features 12.
As with other neuroendocrine cells of the lung, LCNECs arise from Kulchitsky cells of the bronchial mucosa 3.
There is a strong association with smoking 11.
CT features are non-specific. LCNECs, in general, tend to present as oval-to-round and well-demarcated masses with lobulated margins. Their size typically ranges from 2 to 5 cm. Internal calcification is uncommon (9-21%) 2,4,7. A slight peripheral predilection may be present 5. There can be homogeneous or inhomogeneous enhancement following contrast 1.
Treatment and prognosis
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