Sprain (latin distorsio) refers to injury of ligaments and capsules and should not be confused with strain which refers to injury to muscles and their tendons. These terms should not be used interchangeably.
Some authors classify sprain into the following grades
- grade 1: stretching +/- minimal tearing (no macroscopic rupture)
- grade 2: larger but incomplete tearing
- grade 3: complete tearing / rupture
- 1. Evans JM, Schucany WG. Radiological evaluation of a high ankle sprain. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2011;19 (4): 402-5. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Petersen W, Rembitzki IV, Koppenburg AG, Ellermann A, Liebau C, Brüggemann GP, Best R. Treatment of acute ankle ligament injuries: a systematic review. (2013) Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery. 133 (8): 1129-41. doi:10.1007/s00402-013-1742-5 - Pubmed