Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

242 results found
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1-2-3 rule (ovary)

The 1-2-3 rule is a simple aide memoire describing the nomenclature of any small simple anechoic structure in the ovary on ultrasound: <1 cm = follicle 1-2 cm = dominant follicle >3 cm = cyst
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3-6-9 rule (bowel)

The 3-6-9 rule is a simple aide memoire describing the normal bowel caliber: small bowel: <3 cm large bowel: <6 cm cecum: <9 cm Above these dimensions, obstruction should be considered.
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5-F risk factors for cholelithiasis (mnemonic)

The 5-F rule refers to risk factors for the development of cholelithiasis in the event of upper abdominal pain: fair: more prevalent in the Caucasian population 1 fat: BMI >30 female fertile: one or more children forty: age ≥40 cholelithiasis can occur in young patients with a positive fam...
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Abdominal distension (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of abdominal distension (6 Fs) is: F: fat F: fluid  F: flatus F: feces  F: fetus F: fulminant mass
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Abdominal organ echogenicity (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps to remember the relative echogenicity of abdominal organs on ultrasound: Darling Parents So Love Kids Mnemonic From most to least echogenic: D: diaphragm P: pancreas S: spleen L: liver K: kidneys (cortex)
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Abnormal collection of barium anywhere (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used for abnormal collection of barium anywhere in the body: FEDUP Mnemonic F: fistula E: extravasation D: diverticulum U: ulcer P: perforation
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Accessory ossicles of the wrist (mnemonic)

Accessory ossicles of the wrist can be easily recalled with the mnemonic: LOTTEO 1 HOTELS Mnemonic LOTTEO L: lunula O: os styloideum (carpal boss) T: (os) triangulare T: (os) trapezium secondarium E: (os) epilunate O: os hamuli proprium HOTELS H: (os) hamuli proprium O: os triangula...
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Acro-osteolysis (mnemonic)

The causes of acro-osteolysis can be remembered using the mnemonic: PINCH FO Mnemonic P: psoriasis/pyknodysostosis I: injury, e.g. thermal burn, frost bite N: neuropathy, e.g. diabetes mellitus, leprosy C: collagen vascular disease, e.g. scleroderma, Raynaud disease H: hyperparathyroidism...
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Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
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Acute stroke symptoms (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the symptoms of acute stroke are: FAST BE-FAST Mnemonics FAST F = face (look uneven?) A = arm (drift down?) S = speech (sound strange or difficulty speaking) T = time (brain cells die every second) BE-FAST B = balance (sudden loss of balance) E = eye (sudd...
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Aging blood on MRI (mnemonic)

Aging blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MRI signal characteristics of hemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of aging blood through the five stages...
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Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: thymus T: thyroid T: thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and germ cell tumors - see mediastinal germ cell tumors Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a sixt...
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Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
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Apical lung diseases (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to remember common apical lung diseases are: SET CARP CARPETS (anagram of SET CARP) Mnemonics S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
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Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that correspond to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: later...
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Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture, slipped capital femoral epiphysis 2) A: alcohol exc...
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Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP The gap between the 'S' and the 'AL' to emphasize that 'S' is 1st part and 'AL' are 2nd part S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (...
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Basilar invagination (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall the causes of basilar invagination is: PF ROACH Mnemonic P: Paget disease of bone F: fibrous dysplasia R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia A: achondroplasia C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis H: hyperparath...
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Behavioral changes in obstructive sleep apnea (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the behavioral changes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is: APRIL Mnemonic A: aggression P: poor school performance R: restlessness I: irritability L: lack of concentration
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Benign lytic bone lesions that rarely occur in patients over 30 (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember five benign lytic lesions that rarely occur in patients over 30 years old SCAN Everything Mnemonic S: simple bone cyst C: chondroblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma E: eosinophilic granuloma In a patient older than 30 years old these different...
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Bladder calcification (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall the common causes of bladder calcification is: SCRITT Mnemonic S: schistosomiasis C: cytotoxic: see radiation- and chemotherapy-induced cystitis R: radiation: see radiation- and chemotherapy-induced cystitis I: interstitial cystitis T: tuberculosis T: transiti...
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Bladder wall calcification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of bladder wall calcification is: CREST Mnemonic C: cystitis post radiation therapy/chemotherapy/chronic infection R: radiation E: eosinophilic cystitis S: schistosomiasis T: tuberculosis
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Bochdalek hernia features (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the features of a Bochdalek hernia is: 5 Bs Mnemonic B: Bochdalek B: big B: back and medial, usually on the left side B: baby B: bad (associated with pulmonary hypoplasia)
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Bone cortical lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for bony cortical lesions is: Fear Of Missing Out S Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma O: osteoid osteoma M: metastasis O: osteomyelitis S: stress fracture
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Bone within a bone appearance (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the possible etiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is: GHOST DRAGON Mnemonic G: growth arrest lines H: heavy metals, hypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism O: osteopetrosis S: sickle cell anemia, scurvy, syphilis T: thalassemia, tuberculosis D: disease o...
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Bony lesions without periostitis or pain (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember bony lesions that have no pain or periostitis is: E FUN Mnemonic E: enchondroma F: fibrous dysplasia U: unicameral bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma If periostitis or pain is present (assuming no trauma, which can be a foolhardy assumption), you can exclude E ...
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Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (Brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carcinoma) LI...
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Bowel sacculation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember causes of bowel sacculation is: MISC Mnemonic M: metastasis I: ischemia S: scleroderma C: Crohn disease
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Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Red Toucans Don't Come Back  Mnemonic Whe...
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Brachial plexus terminal branches (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonics for brachial plexus terminal branches includes: Most Alcoholics Must Really Urinate Mnemonic Where the first letter of each word represents the terminal branches of the brachial plexus:M: musculocutaneous nerveA: axillary nerveM: median nerveR: radial nerveU: ulnar nerve
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Branches of anterior and posterior divisions of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the anterior and posterior divisions of the internal iliac artery is: I <3 U SUMO SIL which reads as "I love you sumo Sil" Mnemonic I: internal pudendal artery I: inferior vesical artery *  I: inferior gluteal artery U: uterine artery (in femal...
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Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA calming voices make intra-operative surgery pleasurable and almost memorable Mnemonics A VIP'S COMMA A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterior...
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (vaginal in female...
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Branches of maxillary artery (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
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Branches of ophthalmic artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the ophthalmic artery is: DR MCLESSI Mnemonic D: dorsal nasal artery R: (central) retinal artery M: muscular artery C: ciliary arteries (long, short and anterior) L: lacrimal artery E: ethmoidal arteries (anterior and posterior) S: supraorbi...
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Branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery are: SOI VU MR PIG (it can be remembered as SO fourth (IV) U MR PIG) Oranges Under Some Ice Might Peel Instantly Mnemonics SOI VU MR PIG S: superior vesical artery O: obturator artery IV: inferior ves...
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Branches of the external carotid artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the branches of the external carotid artery abound. A few colorful examples include:  Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students She Always Likes Friends Over Papa, Sister, and Mama There are many many many ...
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Branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery include: I Love Sex PILLS G Mnemonics I Love Sex I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery S: superior gluteal artery PILLS G P: posterior division of the internal iliac artery IL: iliol...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Breast lesion localization (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localization when given a set of mammograms in mediolateral oblique (MLO) and 90-degree/true lateral (mediolateral [ML] or lateromedial [LM]) views to predict laterality is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localize a finding on MLO during dia...
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Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artifacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
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Bronchial fracture (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the features of a bronchial fracture on a chest radiograph is: Ps (or written as PPP or PPPP) Mnemonic Ps: progressive or persistent pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum
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Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonics 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral segment...
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Bronchovascular spread (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember diseases that undergo bronchovascular spread is: SKILL Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis K: Kaposi sarcoma I: infection (e.g. pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis) L: lymphoma L: lymphangitis carcinomatosis
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Calcaneal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for calcaneal lesions is: BIG G Mnemonic B: bone cyst (unicameral) I: intraosseous lipoma G: ganglion (intraosseous) G: giant cell tumor
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Calcified glial tumors (mnemonic)

In order of decreasing frequency, a useful mnemonic to remember glial tumors which calcify is: Old Elephants Age Gracefully Mnemonic O: oligodendroglioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma G: glioblastoma
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Calcifying pulmonary metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of calcifying pulmonary metastases is: BOBCAT Mnemonic B: bone (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma) O: ovary B: breast C: colon A: any primary post-chemotherapy T: thyroid
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Carbolic acid poisoning symptoms (mnemonic)

The symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning can be recalled using the mnemonic: 5 Cs Mnemonic C: CNS depression C: constricted pupil C: carboluria (smoky urine) C: cartilage C: corneal deposition
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Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy D: diaphragmatic hernia
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Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bones are numerous and useful for memorizing the order and location of the bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from lateral to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard Sally Left The Party To Take C...
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Carpal tunnel syndrome causes (mnemonic)

Carpal tunnel syndrome results from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Its causes are numerous and varied. A useful mnemonic to remember the causes is: MEDIAN TRAP Mnemonic M: myxedema E: edema D: diabetes mellitus I: idiopathic A: acromegaly N: neoplasm ​T: trau...
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes mellitus D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
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Causes of air trapping on high-resolution CT chest (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of air trapping on HRCT chest are: HSBC Once with HSBC, you are "trapped" with HSBC Mnemonic H: hypersensitivity pneumonitis S: sarcoidosis B: bronchiolitis obliterans C: cystic fibrosis/bronchiectasis
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Causes of breast edema (mnemonic)

The causes of breast edema can be remembered using the mnemonic: VIRALS Mnemonic V: venous obstruction I: inflammatory breast cancer R: radiotherapy A: abscess L: lymphatic obstruction S: surgery (recent), secondaries 2
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Causes of cone-shaped epiphysis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the causes of cone-shaped epiphysis is: ABCDE MOST Mnemonic A: achondroplasia, acrodysostosis B: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome C: chondroplasia punctata, Cockayne syndrome, conorenal syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia D: dactylitis...
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Causes of dementia (mnemonic)

The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic: VANISHED Mnemonic V: vascular, vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate A: Alzheimer disease, autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia I: infection, e.g. Creutzfeldt...
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Causes of oligohydramnios (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering some causes of oligohydramnios is: DRIPPC Mnemonic D: demise R: renal abnormalities (decreased urine output) I:  IUGR P: premature rupture of membranes P: post-dates C: chromosomal anomalies
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy and early learnt mnemonic for recalling some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones, genetic - cystic fibrosis E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids M: mumps (and other infections)/malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/s...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting emergency medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its etiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pul...
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Causes of sacroiliitis - symmetric vs asymmetric (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the symmetric vs asymmetric causes of sacroiliitis is: PAIR Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis A: ankylosing spondylitis I: inflammatory bowel disease related R: reactive (e.g. Reiter syndrome) The outside letters P & R (letters are far apart) are the asymmetric ca...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The cavernous sinus contents (structures within the sinus proper and also in its lateral wall) and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more commo...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase), inflammatory - neurocysticercosis (NCC), tuberculoma C: contusion ...
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Cervical incompetence morphological changes on ultrasound (mnemonic)

Sequential morphological ultrasound changes of the endocervical canal with cervical incompetence can be remembered using the mnemonic: Trust Your Vaginal Ultrasound Mnemonic T-shaped (normal internal cervical os) Y-shaped V-shaped  U-shaped Related article cervical incompetence funnelin...
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Charcot joint causes (mnemonic)

The causes of a Charcot joint can be remembered, using a mnemonic - with a little poetic license - as they (all) start with the letter S. Mnemonic Ss s: sugar (diabetes) s: syphilis s: steroid use s: syringomyelia s: spinal cord injury s: spina bifida s: scleroderma s: scaly disease (l...
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Chest radiograph preinterpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph preinterpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA (Posterior-Anterior) or AP (Anterior-Posterior)? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetrat...
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Chondrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for chondrocalcinosis include: 3 Cs HOGWASH Mnemonics 3 Cs  C: crystals e.g. CPPD, sodium urate (gout) C: cations e.g. calcium (any cause of hypercalcemia), copper, iron C: cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis, acromegaly, ochronosis) HOGWASH H: hyperparathyroidism, hyp...
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Common calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Common causes of bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier-Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis (Williams-Campbell syndrome) A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (gra...
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Complications of petrous temporal bone fracture (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the complications of transverse and longitudinal petrous temporal bone fractures is: Listen Carefully To Something Funny Mnemonic listen carefully = longitudinal / conductive hearing loss to something funny = transverse / sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve...
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Complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is that the most common ones begin with: pneum- Mnemonic pneumatocele pneumothorax pneumomediastinum pneumoperitoneum
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Conditions with lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA BAD AS RASCO Mnemonics CIA C: collagen vascular diseases I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BAD AS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumon...
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Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember conditions with upper lobe predominance in chest radiology are: STEP BREASTS Mnemonics STEP S: sarcoidosis, silicosis T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia P: pneumoconiosis BREASTS B: berylliosis R: radiation fibrosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis...
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Congenital hypothyroidism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypothyroidism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
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Contents of the cubital fossa (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the contents of the cubital fossa is, from medial to lateral: My Brother Throws Rad Parties Mnemonic M: median nerve B: brachial artery T: tendon of biceps R: radial nerve P: posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve
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Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: a...
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Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) Mnemonic R: rostrum G: genu B: body (trunk) S: splenium
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Cortically-based brain tumors (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumors is: PDOG DOG Pee Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
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Cortical nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for common causes of cortical nephrocalcinosis is: COAG Mnemonic C: cortical necrosis O: oxalosis A: Alport syndrome G: (chronic) glomerulonephritis See also nephrocalcinosis cortical nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis mnemonic
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Couinaud classification of hepatic segments (mnemonic)

Pauli et al published a "handy" way to remember the Couinaud classification of hepatic segments 1. Make a fist with your right hand. The fingers should be wrapped around the flexed thumb and the fist should face you. The segments are represented by the following: segment I: (caudate): the thum...
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Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I to CN XII: On ol...
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Crohn disease (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of Crohn disease is: CROHNS Mnemonic C: cobblestone appearance of mucosa R: rose-thorn ulcers O: obstruction of bowel H: hyperplasia of mesenteric lymph nodes N: narrowing of intestinal lumen S: skip lesions
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Cruciate ligament insertions onto the femur (mnemonic)

The location of the cruciate ligament insertions onto the femur can be remembered with the mnemonic: AEPI Mnemonic AE: anterior onto external condyle PI: posterior onto internal condyle
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Cystic lesions of the spleen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of cystic lesions in the spleen is: TEAM Mnemonic T: trauma E: echinococcal A: abscess M: metastasis
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta (type II) D: descending aorta (type III)
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Dense transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

Common causes of dense transverse metaphyseal lines can be remembered using the mnemonics: DENSE LINES PRINCES Mnemonics DENSE LINES D: D-vitamin intoxication E: elemental arsenic and heavy metals (lead, bismuth, phosphorus) N: normal variation S: systemic illness E: estrogen to mother ...
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragmatic apertures is: I 8 10 eggs at 12  - where 8 is a homophone for 'ate' and the 'e' in eggs is for the US spelling of esophagus Mnemonic I 8: inferior vena cava at T8 10 eg...
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Diaphyseal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for a short list of diaphyseal lesions is: CEMENT Mnemonic C: bone cysts E: enchondroma/Ewing sarcoma M: bone metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma N: non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) T: tuberculosis/osteomyelitis
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Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1 Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastocyto...
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Dural tail sign (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember differential diagnoses associated with a dural tail sign is: My Scary Dog Likes To Stand Guard Mnemonic M: meningioma S: sarcoidosis D: dural metastases L: lymphoma T: tuberculoma S: schwannoma G: glioma
Article

Eggshell calcification in thorax and mediastinum (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the major causes of eggshell calcification of the nodes in the thorax and mediastinum are:  A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast Sara Samy Likes Her Smart ABC Mnemonic Mnemonics A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast A: amyloidosis S: sil...
Article

Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules of the testes E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
Article

Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C: capitellum R: radial head I: internal epicondyle T: trochlea O: olecranon E: external epicon...

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