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9 results found

CA 15-3

Carcinoma antigen 15-3, usually shortened to CA 15-3 is a tumor marker used in monitoring breast cancer. The test detects levels of MUC-1, a mucin protein in the blood. MUC-1 is thought to be important in the invasiveness and metastasization of cancer cells. Physiology MUC-1 is a normal epithe...


Serum CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumor markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is ...

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions

Columnar alteration with prominent apical snouts and secretions (CAPSS) is a pathological entity encountered when breast biopsies are done for investigation of punctate or amorphous calcifications. CAPSS involves the terminal ductal and lobular units (TDLU's). It is sometimes classified under t...


A fistula (plural fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles. ...


Metaplasia is a general pathology term that refers to process when one cell type is replaced by another. It usually occurs in the context of a changed cellular environment to which the new cell type is better adapted 1. Examples include 2-5: Barrett esophagus: normal squamous epithelium replace...

Microinvasive carcinoma of the breast

Microinvasive carcinoma is a type of epithelial breast cancer in which microscopic foci of tumor cells infiltrate the breast stroma. Pathology Microinvasive carcinoma is defined histologically as one or more clearly separate foci of tumor cells ≤1 mm in size infiltrating the mammary stroma 1. ...


Myofibroblastoma is a rare, benign, circumscribed mesenchymal breast tumor.  Epidemiology It is the only breast tumor that occurs more commonly in males than females 2. It also has a tendency to occur more in elderly males and postmenopausal women. Pathology It arises from the stromal spindl...

Prostate specific antigen

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a tumor marker for prostate adenocarcinoma. PSA is a 33 kilodalton glycoprotein produced in prostate epithelial cells. Its normal physiologic role is as a liquefying agent for seminal fluid; only a tiny amount leaks into the blood, therefore ...

Sentinel lymph node

Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are defined as those lymph nodes that directly drain a malignancy, or alternatively can be considered as the first node(s) that a tumor metastasizes to. History and etymology "Sentinel node" as the initial draining node of a malignancy was first used in a paper writ...

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