Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) involves the administration of intravenous contrast agents consisting of microbubbles/nanobubbles of gas.
First-generation ultrasound contrast agents contained microbubbles of air that were dissolved in blood when exposed to acoustic pressure in the ultrasoun...
CT cholangiography is a technique of imaging the biliary tree with the usage of hepatobiliary excreted contrast. It is useful in delineating biliary anatomy, identifying a bile leak or looking for retained gallstones within the biliary system.
Second-line test (after ultrasound) wh...
Meglumine iotroxate (BiliscopinTM) is an iodinated, intravenous contrast agent that is preferentially excreted into the biliary tree and is used in CT intravenous cholangiography.
The typical dose is 100 mL Biliscopin (105 mg meglumine iotroxate/mL; 5.0 g iodine), which is administered via slow...
MR liver iron quantification is a non-invasive means of measuring liver iron concentration, a key indicator in the management of patients with hemochromatosis (primary or secondary).
Apart from being non-invasive, sampling occurs in a large cross-section of the liver, as opposed to ...
A pulsatile portal venous flow pattern can result from both physiological and pathological causes.
In well subjects mild pulsatility, or in rare situations, even marked pulsatility has been described, particularly in thin subjects, with a venous pulsatility index of >0.5 with an inverse correla...
Utilizing automated Fourier analysis to convert returning sound waves into a series of individual frequencies, spectral Doppler refers to ultrasound modalities which yield graphical representations of flow velocity over time.
The frequency of the sound waves returned to an ultraso...
Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals.
photon energy: 140 keV
physical half-life: 6 hours
bone marrow: 5%
target organ: liver, spleen
Thorotrast is a suspension of radioactive thorium dioxide first produced in Germany in 1928 and used as a contrast agent until the 1950s. Its principal use was for cerebral angiography: 90% of the estimated 50,000-100,000 patients treated received it for this purpose.
Vicarious contrast material excretion (VCME) defines excretion of water-soluble contrast material in a way other than via normal renal excretion. The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile density seen in the gallbladder. ...