Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

8 results found

Computed tomography texture analysis

Computed tomography texture analysis (or CTTA) is a method to obtain new useful biomarkers that provide objective and quantitative assessment of tumor heterogeneity by analyzing the differences and patterns within the pixel values of an image. CTs can be worked with as a matrix of numbers, corre...

Myoinositol peak

Myoinositol is one of the compounds images with MR spectroscopy (MRS) at both 1.5 T and 3 T and is seen to resonate at 3.5 ppm chemical shift (right of the choline peak).  Myoinositol is a precursor of both phosphatidylinositol (the major inositol-containing phospholipid) and of phosphatidylino...

Neutron therapy

Neutron therapy is a form of particle therapy using neutrons as the energy-carrying particle. The therapy has shown promise for some malignancies but there have also been problems with accurate dose distributions and late complications. Some of these problems historically were thought to be - at...

Particle therapy

Particle therapy (also known as hadronic therapy) is the generic term used for any type of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) employing high-energy particles. Currently proton therapy accounts for most of this type of EBRT. Although strictly a form of particle therapy, electron therapy is usually...

Pion therapy

Pion therapy is a form of particle therapy employing pions. Pions, or to give them their full name, negatively-charged pi mesons (π-), are a type of meson. Pion therapy is currently not used as a treatment modality due to its great expense and lack of clinical efficacy 1,2.

Radiation-induced carcinogenesis

Radiation-induced carcinogenesis is widely but not universally believed to occur at exposures from ionizing radiation used in medical imaging. It is thought to be a stochastic effect of ionizing radiation, with the linear no-threshold theory (LNT) proposing no "safe" level of radiation exposure,...

Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers are a potential long-term complication of radiotherapy to the chest.  Besides lung cancer, sarcomas (osteosarcomas are the most common arising from the irradiated bones and malignant fibrous histiocytomas, the most frequently arising from the soft tissues), breast...


Thorotrast is a suspension of radioactive thorium dioxide first produced in Germany in 1928 and used as a contrast agent until the 1950s. Its principal use was for cerebral angiography: 90% of the estimated 50,000-100,000 patients treated received it for this purpose. Umbrathor was another thori...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.