Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

27 results found
Article

Chest (AP erect view)

The erect anteroposterior chest view is performed with the x-ray tube anteriorly, firing photons through the patient to form the image on a detector positioned behind the patient. A detector can be positioned behind a relatively immobile patient. It is therefore an alternative to the PA view whe...
Article

Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. It is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by overlying soft tissue, upper ribs or th...
Article

Chest (expiratory view)

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit. They are used to help detect small pneumothoraces (although sensitivity is not increased over inspiratory chest radiographs 1), and to assess for inhaled foreign bodies...
Article

Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialized projection utilized to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to inhaled foreign bodies. Patient position the patient is laying either left lateral or right lateral on a trolley...
Article

Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessing the ret...
Article

Chest (PA view)

Posteroanterior (PA) chest view is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The chest X-ray is frequently used to aid diagnosis of acute and chronic conditions.   Patient positi...
Article

Chest photofluorography

Chest photofluorography, also known as mass miniature radiography, is a form of diagnostic imaging known as fluorography, applied to the thorax. Historically it was used for mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging technique consists of recording a miniature photograph of the scre...
Article

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (also known as the chest x-ray or CXR) is thought to be the most frequently-performed radiological investigation globally ref. For pediatric chest radiograph see: chest radiograph (pediatric) Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications...
Article

Chest (supine view)

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity mediastinum and great vessels. This particular ches...
Article

CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
Article

CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA)

The computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA/CTPE) is a commonly performed diagnostic examination to exclude pulmonary emboli. Each radiology department will have a slightly different method for achieving the same outcome, i.e. adequate enhancement of the pulmonary trunk and its branches.  ...
Article

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism

F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) embolism is a condition which results in uniform focal intense FDG-avid pulmonary focus without any underlying structural CT correlate with an unremarkable follow-up PET-CT scan 1. It is thought to occur as a result of clumping of FDG with blood when the blood is wi...
Article

Hair artifact

Hair artifact and hair-product artifacts are artifacts produced by the presence of the patient's hair across the field of view during acquisition of an image, which can affect all modalities to varying degrees.
Article

Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
Article

Review areas on chest x-ray

Review areas on a chest x-ray are common areas for missed findings, and special attention should be paid to them: lung apices: masses (e.g. Pancoast tumor), pneumothorax behind the heart: consolidation, masses, hiatus hernia below the diaphragm: free gas, lines and tubes (e.g. nasogastric tub...
Article

Ribs (AP oblique view)

The AP oblique rib projection is performed to best demonstrate the axillary ribs. Oblique ribs may be conducted either as an anterior oblique or posterior oblique view. The rib series is often noted as an unnecessary projection in many radiology departments. However, if the projection will chan...
Article

Ribs (AP view)

The ribs AP view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the posterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. It often involves two projections, one of the supradiaphragmatic ribs and two of ...
Article

Ribs (PA view)

The ribs PA view is a specific projection employed in the assessment of the anterior ribs. Unlike a standard chest radiograph, this projection applies a lower kV higher mAs technique to highlight bony structures. The rib series is often considered to be an unnecessary projection in many radiolo...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning maneuvers the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity pe...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialized radiographic projection utilized in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, however still utilized in postoperative imaging. Patient position the ...
Article

Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position patient is erect with the left or right side of the thorax adjacent to the image receptor patient's hands are behind their...
Article

Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing the upright detector; the projection is performed RAO to project the st...
Article

Tracheal bifurcation angle

The tracheal bifurcation angle can have a wide range of normal values in patients and can vary significantly in serial radiographs. It is of poor diagnostic value due to the lack of sensitivity and specificity in identifying the underlying pathology.  Terminology The interbronchial angle is th...
Article

Triple-rule-out CT

Triple-rule-out CT (TRO CT) angiography may be ordered in the setting of acute chest pain to examine the thoracic aorta and the coronary and pulmonary arteries. The protocol helps exclude life-threatening causes of acute chest pain, especially if atypical, or if alternative causes to acute coron...
Article

V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide preope...
Article

Xenon-127

Xenon-127 is a radiopharmaceutical principally used when a performing VQ scan. It is not a widely used alternative to xenon-133 with the main advantage being a higher proton energy allowing for post perfusion scanning.  photon energy: 203 KeV physical half life: 36.3 days

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