Represents a saprophytic infection in preexisting structural lung disease (cavitary or bulla from TB,end-stage sarcoid,emphysema).Commonly in upper lobes, solitarylesions. The fungus grows in the cavity, creating a “fungus ball” consisting of fungus,mucus, and inflammatory cells. Treatment is with surgical resection and intracavitary administration of amphotericin.
In mesentericoaxial gastric Volvulus. Stomach rotates around its short axis (perpendicular to long axis) ,