Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the viral encephalitis, endemic in eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is caused by the JE virus, a single-stranded RNA flavivirus. Characteristic neuroradiological findings include T2W/FLAIR hyperintense signals in the thalamus and substantia nigra bilaterally. Restricted diffusion is also noted in the affected parts of brain. Basal ganglia, pons, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and spinal cord may also be involved.
The most common differentials include other viral encephalitides like arboviral diseases, dengue fever, enteroviral infections and herpes simplex.
Final confirmation of the diagnosis is through detection of virus specific IgM antibodies through ELISA test done on serum or CSF.